The following is a chronological listing of significant events in the development of the field of Information Technology between 1950 and 1959. For other time periods see:
- Chronology of Events - Pre-1700
- Chronology of Events - 1700s
- Chronology of Events - 1800s
- Chronology of Events - 1900-1930s
- Chronology of Events - 1940s
- Chronology of Events - 1960s
- Chronology of Events - 1970s
- Chronology of Events - 1980s
- Chronology of Events - 1990s
- Chronology of Events - 2000s
- Chronology of Events - 2010s
1950[edit | edit source]
1950 — Hideo Yamachito creates the first electronic computer in Japan.
1950 — The Harvard Mark III system is operational.
May 10, 1950 — The National Science Foundation is established.
October 1950 — Alan Turing publishes "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," which helps create the Turing Test:
|“||"It can also be maintained that it is best to provide the machine with the best sense organs that money can buy, and then teach it to understand and speak English. This process could follow the normal teaching of a child."||”|
1951[edit | edit source]
1951 — EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator), designed by J. Presper Eckert, J. Mauchley and John von Neumann, is built for Army ballistics calculations.
June 1951 — UNIVAC I, designed by J. Presper Eckert and J. Mauchley, and built by Remington Rand, is delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau.
1952[edit | edit source]
1952 — The Maniac I is built by LANL.
November 4, 1952 — The UNIVAC I, used by CBS, successfully predicts the U.S. presidential election.
1953[edit | edit source]
1954[edit | edit source]
1954 — The IBM 650 is built for business use.
1954 — TRADIC, the first transistorized computer, is built.
1955[edit | edit source]
1955 — President Eisenhower announces the U.S.'s intention to launch a satellite.
August 31, 1955 — The term "artificial intelligence" is coined in a proposal for a "2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence" submitted by John McCarthy (Dartmouth College), Marvin Minsky (Harvard University), Nathaniel Rochester (IBM), and Claude Shannon (Bell Telephone Laboratories).
September 15, 1955 — The United States becomes a party to the 1952 Universal Copyright Convention as revised in Geneva, Switzerland.
1956[edit | edit source]
1956 — The LARC is built by Sperry Rand for atomic research.
1956 — Optical fiber is invented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters and Lawrence E. Curtiss.
January 22, 1956 — A consent decree is entered into by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and AT&T. It prohibits AT&T, through its manufacturing subsidiary Western Electric, from making non-telecommunications-related computing equipment, but preserves AT&T ownership of Bell Laboratories and Western Electric.
August 23, 1956 — The first experimental picture phone is developed by Bell Labs.
November 8, 1956 — The D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals overrules the FCC and holds that the Hush-a-phone can to be sold and used in conjunction with AT&T telephones. Many view this as the first step in the dissolution of AT&T's telephone monopoly.
1957[edit | edit source]
1957 — Field tests begin for the first pagers.
1957 — Noam Chomsky writes Syntactic Structures, which helps people to understand languages structures.
1958[edit | edit source]
1958 — The first computer-controlled missile is launched.
1958 — Stereophonic LP discs are introduced.
1958 — The Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT is founded by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky.
1958 — The Société d'études de mathématiques appliquées is created in France by Jacques Lesourne, Marcel Loichot and Robert Lattès.
February 7, 1958 — In response to Sputnik 1, President Eisenhower requests funds to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) with the mission of becoming the leading force in science and new technologies. It is established pursuant to DoD Directive 5105.15.
September 12, 1958 — The integrated circuit is developed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Gordon Moore at Fairchild Semiconductor. He is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his work.
December 1, 1958 — SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) is operational. It is the first large-scale IT communications network. Whirlwind platforms are linked to remote radar in the North American Air Defense System. Innovations include: modems, digital phone-line transmission, system duplexing, software for real-time operations, and Cathode ray tube (CRT) screens.
1959[edit | edit source]
1980 — The first industrial robot is developed by George Devol and Joseph Engleberger.
1959 — Gordon Gould of Columbia University files a patent on the LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).
1959 — Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments) patents the integrated circuit.
1959 — Xerox introduces the first commercial copier.
1959 — The journal titled "Modern Uses of Logic in Law" ("MULL") is launched by the Electronic Data Retrieval Committee of the American Bar Association. The publication was later renamed the "Jurimetrics Journal."
April 27, 1959 — ERMA (the "Electronic Recording Method of Accounting") is released to digitize checking for Bank of America by creating a computer-readable font. A scanner would read the account number preprinted on the checks in magnetic ink.
May 28, 1959 — COBOL is created by Codasyl (Conference on Data Systems Languages) under Grace Hopper.