The following is a chronological listing of significant events in the development of the field of Information Technology law between 1960 and 1969. For other time periods see:
- Chronology of Events - Pre-1700
- Chronology of Events - 1700s
- Chronology of Events - 1800s
- Chronology of Events - 1900-1930s
- Chronology of Events - 1940s
- Chronology of Events - 1950s
- Chronology of Events - 1970s
- Chronology of Events - 1980s
- Chronology of Events - 1990s
- Chronology of Events - 2000s
- Chronology of Events - 2010s
1960[edit | edit source]
1960 — Computer scientist John McCarthy opines that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility."
March 1960 — J.C.R. Licklider publishes "Man-Computer Symbiosis." In this paper he envisioned:
|“||[a] network of such [computers], connected to one another by wide-band communication lines [which provided] the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and [other] symbiotic functions.||”|
October 1960 — UCLA hosts the First National Conference on Law and Electronics at Lake Arrowhead, California.
November 1960 — Lawyer Roy N. Freed publishes the first article on computer law: "A Lawyer’s Guide Through the Computer Maze," in the The Practical Lawyer.
1961[edit | edit source]
1961 — General Motors begins using the first industrial robot, Unimate, in a New Jersey factory.
1961 — DECUS (the DIGITAL Computer Users Society) meets for the first time.
1961 — The Wire Act is passed.
1961 — John Licklider publishes Galactic Networks.
1962[edit | edit source]
October 1962 — DARPA is founded.
October 1962 — The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within DARPA, with a mandate to interconnect the U.S. Department of Defense's main computers at Cheyenne Mountain, the Pentagon, and SAC HQ.
1963[edit | edit source]
1963 — The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange among computers.
1963 — A DoD study proposes a system of space satellites that would send signals continuously to receivers on the ground, which could be used to locate moving vehicles. The study lays out the GPS concept that we use today.
May 7, 1963 — The Telstar II satellite is launched.
1964[edit | edit source]
1964 — Marshall McLuhan publishes Understanding Media:
|“||"[B]y means of electric media, we set up a dynamic by which all previous technologies — including cities — will be translated into information systems."||”|
1964 — The CDC 6600, the first "supercomputer," is designed by Seymour Cray and built by Control Data Corporation.
1964 — John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop "Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language" (BASIC).
1964 — INTELSAT is established.
May 1964 — Dartmouth University launches the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System, which allowed remote access.
1965[edit | edit source]
1965 — In "A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate," Ted Nelson coins the terms "hypertext," which refers to text that is not necessarily linear, and "hypermedia."
1965 — Paul Baran gets funding from the U.S. Air Force to experiment with a block switching network to protect communications during an nuclear war. However, he withdraws his proposal when the project is shifted to military managers.
1965 — Hearings are held by the U.S. House of Representatives, Special Subcommittee on Invasion of Privacy by Computers.
1965 — The Brooks Act of 1965 is passed. It gives the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) responsibilities for developing automatic data processing standards and guidelines pertaining to federal computer systems.
1966[edit | edit source]
1966 — IBM develops DRAM ("Dynamic Random Access Memory"), which allows fast, compact, reliable and inexpensive data storage on computer systems. By the mid-1970s, DRAM becomes the standard for virtually all computers.
1966 — The first military satellites, the DSCS-I group, are launched by the U.S. Air Force. Three launches placed 26 lightweight (100-pound) satellites in near-geosynchronous orbit. These systems supported digital voice and data communications using spread-spectrum technology.
1966 — Karl Steinbuch, a German computer science pioneer, said: "In a few decades time, computers will be interwoven into almost every industrial product."
February 1966 — ARPANET is founded.
September 6, 1966 — The U.S. Freedom of Information Act is enacted.
October 1966 — Thomas Marill & Lawrence G. Roberts publish "Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers," which is the first ARPANET plan.
November 17, 1966 — The President's Commission on the Patent System releases its report — "To Promote the Progress of . . . Useful Arts" In the Age of Exploding Technology.
1967[edit | edit source]
October 1967 — Lawrence G. Roberts presents the paper "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication," at the Proceedings of the First ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles, Gaithersburg, Tennessee.
October 1967 — The ARPANet plans are published.
November 1967 — B. A. Marron and P. A. D. de Maine publish Automatic data compression in the Communications of the ACM, stating that "The 'information explosion' noted in recent years makes it essential that storage requirements for all information be kept to a minimum."
December 18, 1967 — The U.S. Supreme Court issues its decision in Katz v. U.S., where Justice Harlan set forth the test for determining whether an individual has a "reasonable expectation of privacy."
1968[edit | edit source]
1968 — Prof. Marvin Minsky develops the octopus-like Tentacle Arm.
1968 — Intel is established by Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, and Andy Grove.
1968 — Attorney/Professor Roy N. Freed published the first textbook for a law school course in "Computer Law" titled "Materials and Cases on Computers and Law." The course was offered at Boston University School of Law.
1968 — Robert P. Bigelow published "Computers and the Law: An introductory Handbook" through the American Bar Association.
April 1968 — J.C.R. Licklider and Robert W. Taylor publish The Computer as a Communication Device in Science and Technology:
|“||To appreciate the importance of the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of "critical mass," as it applies to cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution. Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in one place to form a team, and you have trouble, for the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of problem solver. The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a week's communicating. There has to be some way of facilitating communication among people without bringing them together in one place.||”|
June 19, 1968 — Congress enacts the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. Title III allows wiretaps based upon a warrant.
June 21, 1968 — A contract is issued by ARPA with the purpose of designing, constructing, installing, testing, and maintaining four Interface Message Processors (IMPs) that will link computers at the Stanford Research Institute, UC-Santa Barbara, UCLA, and the University of Utah. The contract promises that these IMPs would:
|“||Provide the communications capability required for the ARPA computer research facilities but . . . also be a unique prototype of future communications systems.||”|
June 26, 1968 — The FCC issues its Carterfone decision, which allows the direct connection of devices to the AT&T network. This creates an opportunity for competitors to manufacture and distribute devices that connect to the telephone network.
December 9, 1968 — "The Mother of All Demos" is a name given retrospectively to Douglas Engelbart's demonstration of experimental computer technologies that are now commonplace. The live demonstration introduced the computer mouse, video conferencing, teleconferencing, hypertext, word processing, hypermedia, object addressing and dynamic file linking, bootstrapping, and a collaborative real-time editor.
1969[edit | edit source]
1969 — D. Ritchie and K. Thompson at AT&T Bell Laboratories develop the UNIX operating system to make porting software applications easier. It was first licensed to universities, and later to corporations. It then became the backbone of the Internet.
1969 — CompuServe, the first commercial online service, is established.
1969 — Gary Starkweather invents the laser printer at Xerox.
January 17, 1969 — U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark charges IBM with unlawful monopolization of the computer industry, and requests the federal courts break it up. (13 years later, the U.S. Justice Department will drop the case.)
June 23, 1969 — IBM announces a new marketing policy that charges separately for most systems engineering activities, future computer programs, and customer education courses. This "unbundling" gives rise to a multibillion-dollar software and services industry.
July 20, 1969 — The Apollo 11 spacecraft lands Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon.
November 1, 1969 — Node 3 of the Internet is installed at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB).
December 5, 1969 — Node 4 of the Internet is installed at the University of Utah.