"In Chinese literature there currently exists no formal, authoritative terminology for cyber,' 'cybersecurity,' or other terms stemming from the word 'cyber,' though the Chinese government and scholars have adapted to its usage in English-language media."
|“||the interconnected information infrastructure of interactions among persons, processes, data, and information and communications technologies, along with the environment and conditions that influence those interactions.||”|
|“||[b]roadly defined, a prefix referring to anything related to computers, electronic information and/or digital networks.||”|
|“||the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, and includes technology "tools" such as the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers in critical industries.||”|
Taken from "kybernetes," a Greek term for "steersman" or "governor," the term was chosen by Professor Norbert Wiener for the field of "cybernetics." The term was intended to signal the intertwined tapestry of concepts relating the goal-directed actions, predictions, feedback, and responses in the systems (physical, social, engineering) for which cybernetics was to be an explanatory framework.
"Cyber elements include all digital automation, including those used by the Department of Defense (DoD) and its defense industrial base. This includes information technology (IT) embedded in weapons systems and their platforms; command, control, and communications (C3) systems; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems; logistics and human resource systems; and mobile as well as fixed-infrastructure systems. "Cyber" applies to, but is not limited to, "IT" and the "backbone network," and it includes any software or applications resident on or operating within any DoD system environment, which are commonly collectively referred to as information and telecommunication technology (ICT)."
- Warring State: China’s Cybersecurity Strategy, at 13.
- Guidance on Cyber Resilience for Financial Market Infrastructures, App. A, at 23.
- Joint Terminology for Cyberspace Operations.
- Partnering for Cyber Resilience: Risk and Responsibility in a Hyperconnected World-Principles and Guidelines, at 14.
- Tallinn Manual, at 211.
- Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (MIT Press 1948).
- Task Force on Cyber Deterrence, at 2.