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Within the root zone, one of the servers is designated the authoritative root (or the “A root” server). The authoritative root server maintains the master copy of the file that identifies all top-level domains, called the “root zone file,” and redistributes it to the other 12 servers. Currently, the authoritative root server is located in Herndon, Virginia.

In total, 10 of the 13 root servers are located in the United States, including 3 operated by agencies of the U.S. government. ICANN does not fund the operation of the root servers. Instead, they are supported by the efforts of individual administrators and their sponsoring organizations. Table 1 lists the operator and location of each root server.